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In the industrialised world, final energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from transport services and buildings account for 60-70% of the total.

The planning of buildings and cities are interdependent with the design of transportation systems and networks, as the design of urban areas influences transportation demand in the short to medium term, while transportation systems are a strong determinant of the type of land-use and urban structure in the long term. Effective emission mitigation policies require a thorough understanding of these sectors and their complex interdependence.