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Department of Architecture

Heat -health and built environment
Sustainable Design of built environment
Decarbonising built environment
Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence; Computer Vision
Urban Modeling & Spatial Analysis
Building Performance: Simulation; Energy Efficiency
Digital Tools for Health and Energy behaviour insights


Dr Ronita Bardhan is an architectural engineer and urban studies educator, with a PhD in urban engineering. Bardhan leads the - Cambridge Sustainable Design Group (SDG). Her research is centered around data-driven design of built environment for precision prevention from health and energy burdens in the warming climate. She triangulates building physics, engineering, machine learning / AI and social science data to develop solutions for realising health and low-carbon energy potential in built environments. Bardhan has developed pioneer algorithm for identifying decarbonisation potential in UK buildings climate heat stress & gender equaity . Bardhan's work on climate, health and social housing (Slum Rehabilitation housing in India, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa and Brazil) has informed policymakers and has received wide coverage in global news media  like BBC, TIME, CNN, CBC, Wahington Post etc. 

Bardhan holds associate and visiting positions at Cambridge Public HealthCambridge Infectitous Disease &  Department of Computer Science and Technology. Ronita is part of AI for Environmental Risk, Cambridge Public Health, Centre for Science and Policy, Cambridge Zero Cambridge Global Challenges and Sustainability Leadership for Built Environment (IDBE). She advises multiple international agencies including the World Bank, ADB on affordable housing, health & climate extreme events. 
She is Director of Research & Deputy Head of Department of Architecture. Dr Bardhan is Director of Studies and Fellow in Architecture at Selwyn College in Cambridge. Bardhan Chairs the Research Ethics Committee at the Department of Architecture and History of Arts, and is member of the Cambridge Environmental Sustainability Strategy Committee at the University. She is strongly committed to and is an ardent advocate of the shared vision of equality, diversity, inclusion. She believes that everyone benefits from strength in difference and that diversity is instrumental to success.


Data-Driven Built-Environment Design   Click here for Sustainable Design Group

The vertebral research theme of Dr Bardhan's group is ‘Data-Driven Design Heuristics for Sustainable Built Environment'. She works in the niche sector of habitat design, health and well-being, energy decisions and gender equality for low-income housing. Her expertise includes

  • Sustainable Design (Slum Rehabilitation Housing)  
  • Digital Tools for Health and Energy behaviour insights
  • Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence; Computer Vision
  • Urban Modeling & Spatial Analysis
  • Building Performance: Simulation; Energy Efficiency

Potential PhD students

Looking for highly motivated and energetic individuals who are interested in interdisciplinary research on the sustainable environmental design of urban habitats and computational social sciences using data-driven approaches  

Editorial Activities:





  • NERC Discipline Hopping (DH) for Environmental Solutions - Emerging Socio-technical solutions for decarbonising the future affordable housing - PI
  • Cambridge Creative Encounters – Cambridge Shorts – Research through films-PI
  • National Space Innovation Programme (NSIP), UK Space Agency – High resolution thermal infrared space telescopes for globally monitoring the energy efficiency of buildings - PI
  • Cambridge Africa-Alborada Fund –HEROES - Health and Energy impacts of Residential Overheating in Ethiopian Slum rehabilitation housing - PI



  • Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) International Development, Arts & Humanities Research Council – 

    Filming Energy Research Network (FERN) in India and South Africa - Co-I

  • CamPo - 10 questions on Slum rehabilitation Housing, University of Cambridge, UK and Sciences Po, France - PI
  • Issac Newton Trust - Energy Transition Small Grants – Energy Transition in transitional housing PI



  • Charles Wallace India Trust, UK: Well-being and domestic energy decision-making in of slum rehabilitation housing in India. - PI
  • British Academy, UK: Gender norms and identities in energy and adaption of new technologies in low cost housing in India - Co-PI
  • Precourt Institute for Energy - Stanford University, USA: Assessing the energy efficiency, renewable energy potential and human burdens of informal settlement redevelopment in Mumbai, India - PI


  • National Science Foundation, USA :Building Informatics: utilizing data-driven methodologies to enable sustainability planning of urban building systems - PI
  • MIT-TATA center, USA: Improved Indoor Air Quality in Dharavi in Mumbai, India - PI
  • Mumbai Metropolitan Region – Environment Improvement Society (MMR-EIS), India: Relationship between Structural Factors and the prevalence and pattern of Tuberculosis in Slum Rehabilitation Buildings - PI
  • Department of Science & Technology, India: Network Science for Urban Engineering - PI
  • Department of Science & Technology, India: Smart Sensor Deployment in Buildings: Evacuation Planning and Energy Management - PI
  • Department of Science and Technology, India: Smart Energy Management in Buildings (IPHEE) - Co-I



  • IRCC-IITB Seed Grant: Energy efficiency habitat toolkit: A case study of Mumbai, India - PI
  • IUSSTF-DST BHAVAN Fellowship: Building energy efficiency in slums - PI


  • Ministry of Human Resources, India: Urban Form and Extreme Precipitation Events: Are Compact Cities More Vulnerable to Flooding? - PI
  • Ministry of Human Resources, India: Effects of Real Estate Undercurrents On Urban Forms And Its Emergence As Growth Machine In Indian Cities. Study Area Mumbai - Co-PI
  • Ministry of Human Resources, India: Designing Immersive Virtual Environments(Ives) To Promote Environmental Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behavior (PEBs) In Educational Campus - PI
  • Ministry of Human Resources, India: Frontier of Advanced Science and Technology (FAST), Centre for Excellence in Urban Science and Engineering- PI
  • Ministry of Human Resources, India: Mumbai Transformation - Solid Waste Management - PI


News and media

Interviews and expert panel




Key publications: 

Potential PhD topics

Dr Bardhan encourages applications from potential PhD students interested in working in interdisciplinary research on the sustainable built environment design of urban habitats and computational sciences using a combination of architectural engineering, building physics, data-driven approaches, and geospatial approaches. Broadly the research proposal can adhere to either or some of the following topics:

(i) Climate change (especially heat stress), built environment and health (particularly in developing countries)

(ii) Sustainable Design for health outcomes (indoor/ outdoor air quality; thermal comfort, heat transfer models, daylight)

(iii) Building Performance: Simulation; Energy Efficiency

(iv) Digital Tools for Health and Energy use behaviour insights,

(v) Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence Computer Vision;

(vi) Urban spatial modelling & Spatial Analysis. 

Interested applicants should send a detailed research proposal. This should include a timeline for research and proposed/ expected funding sources. It is highly recommended to connect with me prior to the submission of the research proposal. 



  • Dong, B., Liu, Y., Mu, W., Jiang, Z., Pandey, P., Hong, T., Olesen, B., Lawrence, T., O’Neil, Z., Andrews, C., Azar, E., Bandurski, K., Bardhan, R., Bavaresco, M., Berger, C., Burry, J., Carlucci, S., Chvatal, K., de Simone, M., … Zhou, X. (2022). A Global Building Occupant Behavior Database. Nature Scientific Data, 9(1), 369.
  • Debnath, R., Bardhan, R., Shah, D.U., Mohaddes, K., Ramage, M.H., Alvarez, M.R., and Sovacool, B. (2022) Social media enables people-centric climate action in the hard-to-decarbonise building sector. Nature Scientific Reports (Revise & Resubmit)
  • Peng, Z., Debnath, R., Bardhan, R., and Steemers, K., (2022) Machine learning-based evaluation of dynamic thermal-tempering performance and thermal diversity for 107 Cambridge courtyards. Sustainable Cities and Society, Elsevier (Accepted, in press)
  • Sunikka-Blank, M., Bardhan, R., & Mohandas, P (2022): From informal to formal: understanding gendered energy transitions through filmmaking in Cape Town and Mumbai, Gender, Place & Culture, DOI: 10.1080/0966369X.2022.2115982
  • Pan, J.,Bardhan, R., (2022), Evaluating the risk of accessing green spaces in COVID-19 pandemic: A model for public urban green spaces (PUGS) in London, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening,
  • Bardhan, R., Gupta, P., & Majumdar, A. (2022). GeoInFuse - A data-driven information fusion for intra-urban form classification in data-scarce heterogeneous cities. Cities, 103762.
  • Debnath, R., Bardhan, R., Misra, A., Hong, T., Rozite, V., and Ramage, M.,. 2022. “Lockdown Impacts on Residential Electricity Demand in India: A Data-Driven and Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Study Using Gaussian Mixture Models.” Energy Policy 164: 112886.
  • Peng, Z., Bardhan, R., Ellard, C., & Steemers, K. (2022). Urban climate walk: A stop-and-go assessment of the dynamic thermal sensation and perception in two waterfront districts in Rome, Italy. Building and Environment, 221, 109267.
  • Jana, A, Sarkar, A., and Bardhan, R. 2022. “Evaluating Well-Being in Low-Income Mass Housing in India with Specific Reference to Natural Ventilation.” Area Development and Policy 0 (0): 1–26.
  • Kumar, N., Bardhan, R., Kubota, T., Tominaga, Y., & Shirzadi, M. (2022). Parametric study on vertical void configurations for improving ventilation performance in the mid-rise apartment building. Building and Environment, 108969.
  • Malik, J., Bardhan, R., Hong, T. et al. Developing occupant archetypes within urban low-income housing: A case study in Mumbai, India. Build. Simul. (2022).
  • Debnath, R., Bardhan, R., Reiner, D. M., and Miller, JR (2022) Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental dimensions of electric vehicle adoption in the United States: A social-media interaction analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, 152(December), 111707, pp 1- 23.
  • Barlow, C., Bardhan, R., Brayne, C., Choudhary, R., Friedman, K., Garling, O., . . . Scott, N. (2022). Cambridge Zero Policy Forum Panel Study: Local Priorities for Investing in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. Cambridge Open Engage. doi:10.33774/coe-2022-4tnnr
  • Sung, J., Troilo, M., Howarth,N., Bardhan, R., Grene, H., Golden,M., Furness,I., Maddock,I., Debnath, R , (2021), Better energy efficiency policy with digital tools, International Energy Agency,
  • Pan, J., Bardhan, R.(2023) The Why? How? What? and What-ifs of mass slum rehabilitation housing in India. In eds. Karunaratne, G., Informal Settlements in the Global South, in eds. Schoonderbeek, M., Awan, N., Staničić, A., (2023) Architectural Borders and Territories, Taylor and Francis, Routledge. (in Press)
  • Rajadhyaksha A., Sunikka-Blank, M., Bardhan R., Schupp J. (2022) Indian Cinema as a Database for Socio-Energy Behavior in Chawls. In: Penz,  F., Schupp, J. (eds) The Everyday in Visual Culture, vol 121. Routledge, London.
  • Bardhan, R., Pan, J., Alemayehu, E. & Asres, B. (2022). Heat and health risks in transitional housing of Ethiopia. Cambridge Africa Day, 6th July 2022.
  • Pan, J., Bardhan, R. & Chen, S. (2022) How do occupants perceive thermal comfort in a hybrid office space? A case study of a co-working space in London. 3rd Conference on Comfort at the Extremes Resilient Comfort: Designing to Survive (CATE2022).
  • Bardhan, R (2022), Deep Built Environment Design , Data science and AI for sustainability conference, hosted by Interdisciplinary Research Centres Energy and C2D3 Cambridge, 27th April 2022.
  • Peng, Z., Bardhan, R and Steemers, K; (2022The effects of urban morphology on enriching thermal experience : microclimates of courtyard spaces in Cambridge. In: Annual Conference Proceedings of the XXVIII International Seminar on Urban Form. University of Strathclyde Publishing, Glasgow, pp. 1522-1529. ISBN 9781914241161
  • Pan, J., Bardhan, R. & Chen, S. (2022) How do occupants perceive thermal comfort in a hybrid office space? A case study of a co-working space in London. 3rd Conference on Comfort at the Extremes Resilient Comfort: Designing to Survive (CATE2022).




  • Malik J., Bardhan R. (2019) Integrating occupant behaviour in thermal comfort assessment of low-income dwellings, Sustainable Development Research in the Asia-Pacific Conference, 9th-21st December 2019, Gwalior, India.
  • Bardhan R., Sunikka-Blank M., Nasra-Haque A., (2019) Gender mainstreaming in slum rehabilitation housing management in Mumbai, India: a sentiment analysis. Habitat International, September
  • Debnath, R., Bardhan, R., & Sunikka-Blank, M., (2019) How does slum rehabilitation influence appliance ownership? A structural model of non-income drivers, Energy Policy, Elsevier (Gold Open Access), Volume 132, September 2019, Pages 418-428.
  • Mehrotra, S., Bardhan, R., & Ramamritham, K. (2019). Urban form as policy variable for climate-sensitive area planning under heterogeneity: a geographically weighted regression approach. Area Development and Policy.
  • Sarkar, A., & Bardhan, R., (2019) Optimal interior design for naturally ventilated low-income housing: a design-route for environmental quality and cooling energy saving, Advances in Building Energy Research
  • Debnath, R., Bardhan, R., & Sunikka-Blank, M., (2019) Discomfort and distress in slum rehabilitation housing- Investigating a rebound phenomenon using a backcasting approach, Habitat International, Elsevier (Gold Open Access).
  • Kumar, N., Wang, Z., Kubota, T., Tominaga, Y., Bardhan, R., Wind Tunnel Experiment on Ventilation Effect of Void Spaces for Low-Cost Apartments in the Tropics. The 15th International Conference on Wind Engineering (ICWE) to be held in Beijing, China in September 1-6, 2019
  • Malik, J., Bardhan, R., Banerji, P. (2019) Simulating The Dynamics Of Occupant Behaviour For Thermal Comfort In Social Housing , 16th IBPSA , September 2-4, 2019, Rome, V. Corrado, E. Fabrizio, A. Gasparella and. F. Patuzzi, “Proceedings of Building Simulation 2019: 16th Conference of IBPSA”, ISBN: 978-1-7750520-1-2.
  • Sarkar, A., Bardhan, R., (2019) Efficient Indoor Design in Slum Rehabilitation: A Systematic Simulation for Optimized Energy and experiential Indoor Environmental Quality (e-IEQ) , 16th IBPSA , September 2-4, 2019, Rome, V. Corrado, E. Fabrizio, A. Gasparella and. F. Patuzzi, “Proceedings of Building Simulation 2019: 16th Conference of IBPSA”, ISBN: 978-1-7750520-1-2.
  • Kumar, N.,  Kubota,T.,  Bardhan, R., Tominaga, T., (2019) Analysis Of Airflow In Voids For Better Cross Ventilation In Midrise Buildings In Hot And Humid Climates, 16th IBPSA , September 2-4, 2019, Rome, V. Corrado, E. Fabrizio, A. Gasparella and. F. Patuzzi, “Proceedings of Building Simulation 2019: 16th Conference of IBPSA”, ISBN: 978-1-7750520-1-2.
  • Mehrotra, S., Bardhan, R., & Ramamritham, K. (2019). Outdoor thermal performance of heterogeneous urban environment: An indicator-based approach for climate-sensitive planning. Science of the Total Environment.
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., Jana A., (2019) Evolution of sustainable energy policies in India since 1947: A review. WIREs Energy and Environment (Invited paper) (Link)
  • Sunikka-Blank M., Bardhan R., Nasra-Haque A., (2019) Gender, domestic energy and design of inclusive low-income habitats: A case of slum rehabilitation housing in Mumbai, India. Energy Research & Social Science, Volume 49, March 2019, Pages 53-67. (Link)
  • Mehrotra, S., Mammen, P. M., Ramamritham, K., & Bardhan R. (2019). Data Driven Monitoring of Thermal Profile : Towards Sustainable Urban Habitats. In ACM-ICTD’19 Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (pp. 1–5). Ahmedabad, India: ACM. (Link)
  • Kshetrimayum, B., & Bardhan, R. (2019). Assessment of life satisfaction in slum rehabilitation housing in developing countries. In 4th World Congress on Disaster Management (WCDM-2019). Mumbai, India.29th January – 1st February 2019
  • Mehrotra, S., Bardhan, R., & Ramamritham, K. (2019). Heat stress and urbanisation pattern in Megacity- Mumbai: Towards climate – resilient urban policies. In 4th World Congress on Disaster Management (WCDM-2019). Mumbai, India.29th January – 1st February 2019
  • Malik, J., Bardhan, R., (2019) Exploring the influence of occupant behaviour on thermal comfort in social housing, National Environment Conference, Mumbai, January 31 – February 2, 2019.
  • Sarkar, A., Bardhan, R., (2019) Optimizing air-outlet and furniture location for improved indoor air quality in low-income tenement units of Mumbai, India, National Environment Conference, Mumbai, January 31 – February 2, 2019.
  • Kshetrimayum, B., Bardhan, R. (2019). Appraisal of residential satisfaction in slum rehabilitation housing in Mumbai. 7th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2019), Singapore.


  • Sathyakumar V, RAAJ R & Bardhan R., (2018): Linking remotely sensed Urban Green Space (UGS) distribution patterns and Socio-Economic Status (SES) – A multi-scale probabilistic analysis based in Mumbai, India, GIScience & Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/15481603.2018.1549819 (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., Malik J., Sarkar A.; (2018) Low-income housing layouts under socio-architectural complexities: A parametric study for sustainable slum rehabilitation; Sustainable Cities and Society,Volume 41, August 2018, Pages 126–138 (Link)
  • Debnath R., Bardhan R.; (2018) Resource Symbiosis Model through bricolage: A livelihood generation assessment of an Indian village; Journal of Rural Studies, 60:c, doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2018.03.010R (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., Jana A., Norford L; (2018) Investigating the association of healthcare-seeking behavior with the freshness of indoor spaces in low-income tenement housing in Mumbai; Habitat International 71 (December), 156–168 (Link)
  • Nutkiewicz A., Jain R., & Bardhan R.; (2018) Energy modeling of urban informal settlement redevelopment: Exploring design parameters for optimal thermal comfort in Dharavi, Mumbai, India; Applied Energy 231 (December), 433-445 (Link)
  • Mehrotra, S., Bardhan R., & Ramamritham, K. (2018) Urban Informal Housing and Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity : Exploring Spatial Association in the City of Mumbai. Environment and Urbanization Asia, 1–20. (Link)
  • Sarkar, A. & Bardhan, R., 2018. An expert system framework for holistic development of Rurban clusters in India: Case of tribal Orissa. In 12th World Congress of the Regional Science Association International : Spatial Systems: Social Integration, Regional Development and Sustainability, May 29 – June 1. Goa, India.
  • Malik. J., Bardhan R.; (2018) Optimizing Thermal Comfort in Low-Income Dwellings: A Pinch Analysis Approach, Building Simulation & Optimization Conference, BSO2018, University of Cambridge, 11-12 September 2018 ( Link)
  • Sarkar A., Bardhan R.; (2018) Evaluating the impact of interior layout on indoor air quality in low-income tenement unit: A case of Mumbai, Building Simulation & Optimization Conference, BSO2018, University of Cambridge, 11-12 September 2018
  • Haque A., Sunikka-Blank M., Lemanski C., Bardhan R., Choudhury R., & Prabhu J. (2018) Gender and household energy: female participation in designing domestic energy in India’s slum rehabilitation housing, RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2018, Cardiff University, 28-31 August, 2018 (Link)
  • Avery Bick I.,Bardhan R., Beaubois T.; (2018) Applying Fuzzy Logic to Open Data for Sustainable Development Decision-Making: A Case Study of the Planned City Amaravati; Natural Hazards, 91:3, pp 1317–1339 (Link)
  • Bardhan R., (2018) Visualizing Urban spaces from spaces: decoding the digital earth, International Conference on the Networked Digital Earth, March 7-9, 2018, Kharagpur, India (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., (2018) Evaluating building material based thermal comfort of a typical low-cost modular house in India. – Materials Today:Proceedings (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., (eds); (2018) Building Science for low-income habitat – Report (Link)
  • Bardhan R., (2018) “Gender equality through design in low-income communities – A case study of SRA in Mumbai”, Gender Colloquium: Gender Issues in Urban Transformation Focus on The Adolescent Girl and Urbanisation 23-24th August, 2018.
  • Kshetrimayum, B., Bardhan, R., & Jana, A. (2018). Assessment of neighbourhood qualities in slum rehabilitation housing in Mumbai, India. Urban Transitions 2018, Spain.
  • Kshetrimayum, B., Bardhan, R., & Jana, A. (2018). Impact of built environment on residents’ health in slum rehabilitation Housing in Mumbai, India. Urban Transitions 2018, Spain.
  • Mehrotra, S., Bardhan, R., Ramamritham, K. & Kshetrimayum B. (2018). Imprints of urban development pattern on its thermal environment in the megacity Mumbai. Urban Transitions 2018, Spain.


  • Bardhan R., Debnath R.; (2017) Investigating building energy performance with site-based airflow characteristics in wind-driven naturally ventilated conditions in low-income tenement housing of Mumbai. 6th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 2017, December 12–14, 2017, Mumbai, India
  • Malik J., Bardhan R., (2017) User Experience & Perception in First Generation Green Rated Office Buildings in India. 6th International Conference on Advances in Energy Research 2017, December 12–14, 2017, Mumbai, India
  • Sathyakumar, V., Ramsankaran, RAAJ.,Bardhan R., ; (2017) Multiscale Analysis of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status (SES) and Remotely Sensed Spatial Patterns of Urban Green Spaces (UGS) in Mumbai, India. The 38th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing (ACRS 2017), New Delhi, India. Oct 23-27 (Link)
  • Basu R., Jana A., Bardhan R., Bandyopadhyay S.; (2017) Pinch Analysis as a Quantitative Decision Framework for Determining Gaps in Health Care Delivery Systems; Process Integration and Optimization for Sustainability 1 (3), 213-223 (Link)
  • Chikaraishi M., Jana A., Bardhan R., Varghese V., Fujiwara A.; (2017) A framework to analyze capability and travel in formal and informal urban settings: A case from Mumbai. Journal of Transport Geography65 (September), 101–110 (Link)
  • Ronita Bardhan (2017): Integrating rapid assessment of flood proneness into urban planning under data constraints: a fuzzy logic and bricolage approach, Area Development and Policy, DOI: 10.1080/23792949.2017.1338523 (Link)
  • Debnath R., Bardhan R., Banerjee R, (2017) ‘Taming the killer in the kitchen : mitigating household air pollution from solid-fuel cooking through built-environment’, Clean Technologies and Environment Policies. doi: 10.1007/s10098-016-1251-7 (Link)
  • Debnath R., Bardhan R., Jain R., (2017) A data-driven and simulation approach for understanding thermal performance of slum redevelopment in Mumbai, India, IBPSA, Aug 7-9, 2017 San Fransisco, USA
  • Bardhan R; Beaubois Terry (eds), Sustainable Urban Solutions in India-CEE 244A Winter 2017, Sustainable Urban Systems Initiative- Stanford University, (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., (2017) Building Performance Study of Indira Awas Yojana for Smart Village; 2017 IEEE International Conference on Energy, Communication, Data Analytics and Soft Computing(ICECDS), Chennai, India, VI, pg 1-6. (Link)

2016 and previous years

  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., (2016) Towards daylight inclusive bye-law: Daylight as an energy saving route for affordable housing in India, Energy for Sustainable Development. Vol-34, October.pp 1-9.doi:10.1016/j.esd.2016.06.005 .(Link)
  • Debnath R., Bardhan R., Banerjee R, (2016) ‘Investigating the age of air in rural Indian kitchens for sustainable built environment design’, Journal of Building Engineering; doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2016.07.011 (Link)
  • Debnath R., Bardhan R., Jain R. K, (2016) A data driven-design framework for urban slum housing: Case of Mumbai, BuildSys ’16, November 16-17, 2016, Palo Alto, CA, USA ACM. (Link)
  • Basu, R., Jana, A. & Bardhan R., A Health Care Facility Allocation Model for Expanding Cities in Developing Nations: Strategizing Urban Health Policy Implementation. Appl. Spatial Analysis (2016). doi:10.1007/s12061-016-9208-0 (Link)
  • Jana A., Bardhan R., Sarkar,S, Kumar V; (2016) Framework to assess and locate affordable and accessible housing for developing nations: empirical evidences from Mumbai; Habitat International. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2016.07.005. (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., (2016) Evaluating building material based thermal comfort of a typical low-cost modular house in India. PMME-2016 – Materials Today : Proceedings (In Press)
  • Debnath R., Bardhan R., (2016) Fulfilling SDG-3:DALYs averted in rural kitchens through design, UN-IARC, Mumbai, India (in press).
  • Mehrotra, S., Bardhan R., Ramamritham K., (2016) Built Form Determinants of Urban Land Surface Temperature: A Case of Mumbai, Sustainable Built Environment Conference: Expanding Boundaries, Systems Thinking in the Built Environment 13-17 June 2016, Zurich, Switzerland
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., Banerjee R., (2016) ‘Evaluating Differences In Airflow Patterns For Similar Rural Kitchens Using CFD’, 6 th International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation(ICCMS), June, 27- July, 1, Mumbai; pp 391-395. (Link)
  • Sangoi S., Jain A., Jana A., Bardhan R., Velaga N., (2016) Behavior of Housing Prices Within the “Equi-influence” Zone of Metro Corridor in Mumbai, India: A Fuzzy Logic Approach. Transportation Research Board 95th Annual Meeting
  • Chikaraishi M., Jana A., Bardhan R., Varghese V., Fujiwara A., (2016) Revisiting Travel Time in Mumbai: Value of Time Saving or Value of Access? Transportation Research Board95th Annual Meeting
  • Debnath R., Bardhan R., (2016) Daylight performance parameter of a naturally ventilated building as a parameter for energy management. Energy Procedia (Link)
  • Ghosh, S, and Bardhan R., (2016) Understanding variables for contextual re-generation of Urban Areas, 52nd ISOCARP Congress 2016 – Cities we have vs Cities we need; September 12-16, 2016, Durban, South Africa
  • Bardhan R., (2016) “Inaugural Editorial of Urban Planning: Redefining City Planning Agendas under the Contextual Realm,” Urban Planning, vol. 1, pp. 1-4. (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Jana, A., and S. Sarkar, (2016)”Informality,” in Encyclopedia of Urban and Regional Studies, A. M. Orum, Ed., ed: The Wiley Blackwell, 2016.(In press)
  • Chikaraishi, M.,Jana, A., Bardhan R., & Fujiwara, A. (2016); Time Use of Urban Poor and Rural Poor on Activity and Travel in Gujarat, India: Similarities and Differences, Asian Transport Studies, Volume 4 Issue 1, 19-36. (Link)
  • Jana, A., Bardhan R., (2016), Planning transit system for India cities: Opportunities and challenges in Handbook of Research on Emerging Innovations in Rail Transportation Engineering. eds Rai. U. ISBN:: 978-1-5225-0084-1 (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Debnath R., Bandopadhyay, S., (2016).A conceptual model for identifying the risk susceptibility of urban green spaces using geo-spatial techniques. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. doi:10.1007/s40808-016-0202-y.(Link)
  • Bardhan R., V Varghese, A Jana;(2015), Analyzing Regional Travel Patterns in India: Disaggregated Analysis of Social, Health and Pilgrimage Trips. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies; Vol. 11, p.362-378 (Link)
  • Varghese, V; Sarkar, S; Bardhan R., Velaga, NR; Jana, A; (2015) Transport network characteristics and real-estate undercurrents: The effect of spatial non stationarity on property pricing in Mumbai; 3rd Conference of Transportation Research Group of India (3rd CTRG); 17 – 20 December, 2015, Kolkata, INDIA
  • Bardhan R., Sarkar, S; Jana, A; Velaga, NR, (2015) Mumbai slums since independence: Evaluating the policy outcomes; Habitat International, Vol 50, Dec-2015, pp 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2015.07.009 (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Bandopadhyay, S, & Gupta, K. (2015). Rapid Estimation of Flood Prone Zones under Data Constraint Scenario: A Fuzzy Modelling Approach. Paper presented at theHYDRO 2015 International :20th International Conference on Hydraulics, Water Resources and River Engineering, Roorkee, India.
  • Bardhan R., Bahuman, C, Pathan, I, & Ramamritham, K. (2015, 9–12 December 2015). Designing a game based persuasive technology to promote Pro-Environmental Behaviour (PEB). Paper presented at the Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC), 2015 IEEE Region 10, Cebu City, Philippines.10.1109/R10-HTC.2015.7391844 (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Varghese, V; Jana, A; Analyzing Regional Travel Patterns in India: Disaggregated Analysis of Social, Health and Pilgrimage Trips; Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies – EASTS 2015 Conference :Resilient and Inclusive Transportation Systems through Smarter Mobility, Cebu, Philippines; 09/2015
  • Chikaraishi M.,Jana, A., Bardhan R., Varghese V;& Fujiwara, A. (2015); Revisiting travel time in Mumbai: the value of time saving or the value of access?, 52nd Conference on Infrastructure Planning and Management 2015; JSCE, 21 to 23 November, 2015, Japan.
  • Chikaraishi, M.,Jana, A., Bardhan R., & Fujiwara, A. (2015); Time Use of Urban Poor and Rural Poor on Activity and Travel in Gujarat, India: Similarities and Differences, 11th EASTS Conference: Resilient and Inclusive Transportation Systems through Smarter Mobility, 11 to 14 September, 2015, Cebu , Philippines. (Link)
  • Jana, A., Bardhan R., & Sarkar, S., (2015). Future Place making in Mumbai: Analyzing Mumbai Development plan 2034, Future of Places International conference – UNHabitat, Stockholm, Sweden, 29 June to 1 July 2015. (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Kurisu, K., Hanaki,K.; (2015) Does compact urban forms relate to good quality of life in high density cities of India? Case of Kolkata, Cities, 48, pp 55-65, ISSN 0264-2751, (Link)
  • Chikaraishi, M., Jana, A., Bardhan R., & Fujiwara, A. (2015). Urban-Rural Comparison of Time Use in India: Gender, Education, and Economic Affluence .Transportation Research Board (TRB) 94th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C, USA.(Link)
  • Bardhan R., 2014. Urban quality of life in growing megacities – a case of Kolkata, India. International Symposium on MEGACITIES, November, 11 – 14, 2014, Kolkata, India.
  • Bardhan R., 2013. Simulation of Land Use Consequences of Urban Corridor in Kolkata: An Integrated Spatial and Expert System Model, Environment and Urbanization Asia 4: 267-286, doi:10.1177/0975425313510767.
  • Bardhan R., Kurisu, K. H., & Hanaki, K. , 2013. Relating urban form to objective quality of life using pattern recognition technique – a case study: megacity region of Kolkata, India. 2013 AAG Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, California.(Link)
  • Bardhan R., 2013, Process of Incubation of Environmental Leader: Lessons learned from field research in Great Pearl River Delta, China, 2012. International Symposium on “Fostering Future Leaders for Sustainable Society, (; Tokyo, Japan, 9th January, 2013.
  • Kyoungjin, A. Bardhan R., 2012 Response to sustainable urban water use and management: exploring field-oriented environmental education curricula for leadership development. IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition, Busan, Korea; 16th-21st September, 2012.
  • Bardhan R., 2012 Assessment tool for Land Use consequences of Urban Corridors: An Investigation of Location, and Use Effect Case Study: 2nd Vivekananda Bridge & Belghoria Expressway, Kolkata, India. 10th Conference of Asian City Planning (10thACP), Tokyo; Japan, 23rd June, 2012.
  • Bardhan R., Kurisu H, K.Hanaki K., 2011. Linking Urban Form & Quality of Life in Kolkata, 47th ISOCARP Congress Liveable cities – Urbanizing World: Meeting the Challenge, organized by ISOCARPand the People’s Government of Wuhan Municipality (UPSC), Wuhan (China), October 24, 2011, Congress CD-ROM Proceedings, ISBN: 978-94-90354-12-1; (Link)
  • Bardhan R., Jana, A 2010 Incorporating The Concept of Zero Energy In The Newly Developed Satellite Towns of India – Case Study Rajarhat, Kolkata, India. India-Japan Symposium On Emerging Technologies, Tokyo;Japan, 7 October, 2010
  • Chattapadhyay. S., Bardhan R., Jana A., 2006. Growth Dynamics Vs Sustainability – The Dichotomy of twin mining towns Joda & Barbil, XXXIV IAHS, World Congress on Housing Sustainable Housing Design Emphasizing Urban Housing. Naples, Italy 20-23 September 2006.
  • Bardhan R., 2006, “An Urban Corridor in Transition: VISION 2020”, ITPI Newsletter (No. XXXIII), West Bengal Regional Chapter, Dec 2006.

Invited Talks and participation

  • Bardhan, R. (2021) IEA Behavioural Insights for Inclusive Energy Policy, International Energy Agency, Paris; July 2021
  • Bardhan, R. (2021) IEA Energy Efficiency Policy and Digital Tools Workshop, International Energy Agency, Paris June 2021
  • Bardhan, R. (2021) Resilient cooling in poverty, UNFOLD -Decolonising Architecture, ARCSOC - University of Cambridge, March 2021
  • Bardhan, R. (2021) Data driven design for sustainable future cities: incorporating the intangible - Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, February, 2021
  • Bardhan, R. (2021), Energy from Moving images, Energy and Society, Oxford University, Environmnetal Change Unit, January, 2021
  • Bardhan R, (2021).Health due to design in transitional housing of Global South, Yale University, School of the Environment, January 2021
  • Bardhan R, (2020), Machine Intelligence aided storytelling for unravelling energy cultures in slums New ways of seeing and understanding systems – experiences from Brazil, India, Kenya and Nigeria, UNDP’s Strategic Innovation Unit, December 9,2020
  • Bardhan, R. (2020). WeD: Well-Being in Developing Countries - Built environment as the confounding factor: Case India. In S. Webb, E. W. Sheffield, & B. Flinn (Eds.), Towards Healthier Homes in Humanitarian Settings. Proceedings of the Multi-sectoral Shelter & Health Learning Day (p. 21)
  • Bardhan R., (2020) Not so Cool - Built environment design for mitigating the climate induced cooling demands. 

    3rd Annual Virtual Roundtable on Residential Electricity Consumption, Oxford, UK, Centre for Policy Reserach, India, Prayas, India, 22 September , 2020.

  • Bardhan R (2020) - GCRF COMPASS Leadership Programme on Solving Global Challenges, Cambridge
  • Bardhan R (2019) - Speaker at 2019 PublicHealth@Cambridge Network Showcase, Health and Well-Being in slum rehabilitation in Mumbai, November 15, 2019, Cambridge, UK
  • Bardhan R (2019)- Keynote Speaker on Built Environment Panel- Kingston Council's Citizens' Assembly on Air Quality, Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Nov10, 2019, Kingston, UK
  • Bardhan R (2019)- Keynote at the Building Simulation 2019 at Rome: Plenary session- Multi-dimension Urban Analysis in Practice – Case Studies from San Francisco to Lisbon and Mumbai. 
  • Bardhan R (2019) Human-Computer Interaction for heat-stress reduction in tropical cities, April 2019, GCAA x IIT Bombay Interdisciplinary Seminar on Human-Computer Interaction for Development, Centre for Urban Science and Engineering IIT Bombay & Gates-Cambridge Trust, University of Cambridge.
  • Bardhan R (2018) Gender and household energy: female participation in designing domestic energy in India’s slum rehabilitation housing , November 2018,CRASSH, University of Cambridge, UK
  • Bardhan R., (2018) “Visualizing Urban spaces from spaces” June, 2018, NASA Ames Earth Science Division, USA
  • Bardhan R., (2018) “Designing for Health & Well-being: A data-driven approach to building science” May 10, 2018, Stanford University, USA
  • Bardhan R., (2018) “Gender equality through design in low-income communities – A case study of SRA in Mumbai”, Gender Colloquium: Gender Issues in Urban Transformation Focus on The Adolescent Girl and Urbanisation 23-24th August, 2018.
  • Bardhan R., (2017) “Slum Habitat Design: An introduction to Mumbai’s Chawl / slums”, March 16, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Bardhan R., (2017) “Urban Form and Climate – Indian Case”, March 13, Sustainability & Data Sciences Laboratory (SDS Lab), Northeastern University, USA.
  • Bardhan R., (2017) “The 3P’s of Design: Is design a product, process or philosophy?” – Sustainable Urban Systems Seminar, January 26,Stanford University,USA.
  • Bardhan R., (2016) “De-coding SMARTness of Indian Cities”, Workshop on Smart Cities: Mobility and Infrastructure in the 21st Century, organised by IISER Pune in association with German House for Research and Innovation (DWIH) in New Delhi, Heidelberg Centre South Asia (HCSA), University of Goettingen, Indo-German Chamber of Commerce (IGCC) and University of Cologne, August 19 2016, IISER Pune, India. (Link)
  • Bardhan R., (2016) “Envisioning a Smart city: A People Centric Approach”, 10th National Frontiers of Engineering Symposium for Young Indian Engineers, 23 – 25 June 2016, IIT Kanpur, India.
  • Bardhan R., (2016) “Internet of everything and India’s SMART city vision :Towards Enablement”. Invited speaker at Internet of Things (IOT) & Smart City – Thematic Session III – Distributed and Embedded High Performance Computing. June 1-4, 2016. Mumbai, India
  • Bardhan R., (2016) 5th Regional Conference on Infrastructure Project Management, Invited Speaker at the “Sustainable and Green Building” session. May 27, 2016, Mumbai, India
  • Bardhan R., (2015) Geo-Informatics in Urban Planning, Invited talk at School of Planning and Architecture Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. October 30, 2015
  • Bardhan R., (2015) Green Building : Principles & Concepts, Invited talk at Symposium on Green Building : Principles, Concepts and Case Studies, GH Patel College of Engineering & Technology, Gujarat, India. October 15, 2015
  • Bardhan R., (2015) Dissemination of Incentives for Green Building, Invited talk at Workshop on Green Buildings, New Kolkata Development Authority, Govt. of West Bengal,India, Kolkata. April 2, 2015 (Link)
  • Bardhan R., (2015) Why Mumbai had Slums. Invited talk at the Amsterdam-Mumbai Symposium on ‘Sustainable Urban Development: Practices, Problems, and Prospects’,at IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India on March 27, 2015.(Link)
  • Bardhan R., (2015) Social networks and psychological factors for pro-environmental behavior in urban waste management. Invited talk at 37th Taoyaka Program Seminar (the 285th IDEC Asia Seminar), Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC), Hiroshima University,Japan on March 21, 2015(Link)
  • Bardhan R., (2015) Smart PEOPLE for smart cities -harnessing pro-environmental behavior in waste management. Invited talk at Roundtable and Workshop on Role of Universities in Building Healthy, Sustainable & Smart Cities, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, INDIA on January28 , 2015 (Link)
  • Bardhan R., (2014) Spillovers of Urbanization in India – A macro and micro temporal perspective Invited talk at IIT Kharagpur – Research Scholars’ Day, November, 17, 2014, Kharagpur, INDIA
  • Bardhan R., (2014) Issues in Pro-Environmental behavior – Industrial Waste Management. Invited talk at JACOBS Engineering (Oil & Gas sector), Mumbai, INDIA on August 27, 2014
  • Bardhan R., (2014) “Sustainable Use of Natural Resources on local, regional and global scale” – Workshop. Invited talk at Indian-Sino-Finnish Cleantech Roundtable was held in Helsinki, Finland on May 6th, 2014
Other publications: 


Teaching and Supervisions


Principles of Environmental Design, Sustainable design, data-driven design, urban informatics and spatial analysis, health and design, climate change, health and design, digital tools for gender and energy 


  • Part IB:  Principles of Environmental Design


  • MPhil in Architecture and Urban Studies
  • MPhil in Architecture and Urban Design
  • MPhil in Energy Technologies
  • Sustainability Leadership for the Built Environment (IDBE) - Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership

For the MPhil in Architecture and Urban Studies [MAUS], MPhil in Architecture and Urban Design [MAUD], and PhD:

  • Co-Lecturer/Convener, core paper "Research Methods: Building Environmental Simulations and Data-driven design" 
  • Advanced Seminar "Managing Urban Change" 
  • Advanced Seminar "Health and Wellbeing" 

I supervise on average 2 MAUS and 2 MAUD students. 

Research supervision: 




Other Professional Activities



Associate Professor of Sustainable Built Environment
Deputy Head of Department and Director of Research
Director, Cambridge Sustainable Design Group
Visiting Professor - Department of Computer Science and Technology
Chairperson, AHA Ethics Committee
Member, University of Cambridge - Environmental Sustainability Strategy Committee
Director of Studies & Fellow in Architecture, Selwyn College